Resting 12-lead ECGs were recorded (General Electric MAC 1200 electrocardiograph; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI).8,9

Echocardiograms were performed using a SequoiaTM 512 ultrasound machine (Acuson, Mountain View, CA), per guidelines by the American Society of Echocardiography.10,11 Studies were recorded in digital format, and all measurements were made on digital loops using a Digisonics offline analysis station (version 3.2 software; Digisonics, Houston, TX) at the Cardiovascular Branch, Echocardiography Laboratory, of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (Bethesda, MD).12

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