The demographic and clinical characteristic data were collected, such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI), age, race, residence, systolic pressure (SBP), and diastolic pressure (DBP). Some hematologic and biochemical indexes including fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood glucose, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and total cholesterol (TC) were also collected.

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Huamei Bioengineering Co., Ltd., Wuhan, China) was used to detect the level of serum ZAG. The coefficients of variation (CV) for the intra- and interassay were lower than 8% and 10%, respectively.

ELISA kits (Huamei Bioengineering Co., Ltd., Wuhan, China) were used to detect the level of insulin, and the CV for the intra- and interassay were both lower than 15%. The insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated and analyzed with homeostasis model assessment [20]. The calculation formula is HOMA‐IR = FPG × FINS/22.5.

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