All subjects of gestation age between 24 weeks and 28 weeks were recruited in the study in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from July 2018 to June 2019. All the subjects are Chinese. They all were naturally pregnant and had single pregnancy, and they did regular perinatal care and gave birth in the hospital. They undertook 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during their prenatal examination. Newly diagnosed gestational diabetes mellitus patients were selected as the case group. We selected normal pregnant women as controls on the same day when GDM pregnant women were diagnosed by matching the gestational week with that of the GDM pregnant women. What is more, the range of age between the GDM pregnant women and the matching controls is not more than 3 years old. And we excluded the pregnant women with chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, severe liver and kidney diseases, tumors, mental diseases, and other pregnancy complications. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The study meets the requirements of the ethics committee, and the study was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2000028811).

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