HLECs were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection. The following additional reagents were used in the present study: NPPB (Abmole Bioscience Inc.), DMSO, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA; Sigma-Aldrich; Merck KGaA), low-glucose DMEM (HyClone; Cytiva), FBS (Gibco; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.), Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays (cat. no. C0040), RIPA lysis buffer (cat. no. P0013C), SDS-PAGE Sample Loading Buffer 5X (cat. no. P0015), Ca2+ indicator dye Fluo-4 AM kit (cat. no. S1060), reactive oxygen species (ROS) Assay kit (cat. no. S0033M), N-acetylcysteine (NAC; cat. no. ST1546-10g), enhanced bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay kits (cat. no. P0009), JC-1 probes (cat. no. C2006) and antibodies against caspase-3 (1:1,000; cat. no. AC030) (all from Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology), primary antibodies against protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK; 1:2,000; cat. no. 33247), phosphorylated (p)-PERK (1:1,000; cat. no. 12814), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2; 1:500; cat. no. 48496), Bcl-2-associated X (BAX; 1:1,000; cat. no. 48690), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP; 1:1,000; cat. no. 49418), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6; 1:1,000; cat. no. 32008), JNK (1:3,000; cat. no. 48615), caspase-12 (1:1,000; cat. no. 48277), β-actin (1:10,000; cat. no. 21338), HRP-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG secondary antibody (1:10,000; cat. no. L3032) and HRP-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody (1:10,000; cat. no. L3042) (all from Signalway Antibody LLC), immobilon western chemiluminescent HRP substrate (cat. no. WBKLS0500; EMD Millipore).

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