Behavioral performance was measured using signal detection theory (Green and Swets, 1966; Stanislaw and Todorov, 1999). Hits or FAs occurred when the animal licked the piezo waterspout upon presentation of the target or the reference stimuli, respectively. Misses or correct rejections (CRs) occurred when the animal did not lick following presentation of the target or reference. HR was calculated as the proportion of licks that occurred upon presentation of the target during the response window (0.1–1.5 s after target onset), HR = hits/(hits+misses). FA rate (FAR) was calculated as the proportion of reference stimuli that elicited a lick, during the same window following reference onset, FAR = FAs/(FAs + CRs). Sensitivity (d’), a measure of the animals’ ability to discriminate between target tone and reference noise, was measured by the difference between the z-scored HR and the FA rate, d’ = HRz− FARz. No discrimination, that is, equal likelihood of responding to target and reference is indicated by d’ = 0. Animals were considered trained to the task and ready to undergo electrophysiological recordings when they performed consistently above chance (d’ > 1) for three consecutive sessions.

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