Coronary angiography procedures were performed using a Philips (Optimus 200 DCA and Integris Allura 9, Philips Medical Systems, Eindhoven, Netherlands) angiography device using the femoral approach. Coronary angiography and PCI were performed according to the standard clinical practice with nonionic, iso-osmolar contrast medium (iodixanol, Visipaque 320mg/100mL; GE Healthcare, Cork, Ireland). Primary PCI of the infarct-related artery was performed. Angiographic images were shot at a rate of at least 80 image frames and were recorded at a rate of 25 frames per second. At least two cardiologists assessed the coronary anatomic examination records offline. Coronary blood flow velocity was determined by the quantitative number of frame count as described by Gibson et al.11 The CNP was defined angiographically as post-PCI TIMI flow grades ≤1, without the presence of dissection, mechanical obstruction, or significant stenosis.1 CNP patients received intracoronary (IC) glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (Gp-IIb/IIIa inh.) or IC adenosine or epinephrine for the treatment of CNP, respectively. After the procedure, all patients received intravenous (IV) hydration with isotonic saline for at least 12 hours.

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