After detailed examinations, the medical history of each patient was collected by the same investigator. Risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), including age, gender, hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia (HPL), and smoking status, were noted. Patients who were previously receiving antihypertensive therapy or whose blood pressure levels, measured at least twice, were ≥140/90 mmHg were considered to be hypertensive.8 Patients who were previously receiving an oral antidiabetic and/or using insulin therapy or whose fasting blood glucose, measured at least twice, was ≥125 mg/dL were considered to be diabetic.9 The presence of HPL was considered when total cholesterol level was >200 mg/dL or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was >100 mg/dL or when the patient was previously receiving a lipid-lowering medication in accordance with the “Adult Treatment Panel III” guideline.10 Patients who were still using tobacco products on admission to the emergency service and those who had ceased smoking within the past month were considered smokers.

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