The nuclear morphology was examined using a confocal fluorescence microscope (IX71, Olympus, Düsseldorf, Germany) by staining cells with a fluorescent DNA-binding dye. After incubation in media containing different concentrations of NPs, the cultured PBMCs were treated with 100 mg/mL of the fluorescent DNA-biding dye 488 Green (Sigma-Aldrich, Merkgroup, Milano, Italy) and then observed.

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