A 64-slice computed tomography (CT) scanner (Discovery 750 HD/Revolution GSI; GE Healthcare, Tokyo, Japan) was used. The original thickness of the CT images was 0.625 mm, and the re-formatted slice thickness was 2.0 mm. All measurements were performed using imaging software (DICOM Image Work-Station XTREK F.E.S.T. A system; J-Mac System Inc., Sapporo, Japan).

The operation time, blood loss and complications were assessed. The radiographic and clinical findings were compared before surgery and postoperatively. The radiographic assessment consisted of SVA, lumbar lordosis (LL) and pelvic incidence (PI) at the standing position. The clinical evaluation was performed at minimum twelve months postoperatively, with patient-reported outcomes measures, including numerical rating scale (NRS) of LBP and leg pain as well as Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).

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