Publication bias was assessed by visual examination of the funnel plot complemented with the DOI plot, both created with METAXL [16]. In addition, the Begg test and the Egger test calculated with Stata, and the Luis Furuya-Kanamori index (LFK) were used [17]. The Begg and Egger tests contrast the null hypothesis of absence of publication bias. Begg uses the rank correlation between the effect of the standardized intervention and its standard error [18]. Egger uses linear regression of the estimate of the intervention effect against its standard error, weighted by the inverse of the variance of the estimate of the intervention effect [19]. The LFK index uses a new graphical method, the DOI plot, to visualize the skew between studies. An LFK ≤ 1 was considered as no skewness = no publication bias; >1 ≤2 as minor skewness = low risk of publication bias; and > 2 as major skew = high risk of publication bias.

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