The studies that met the selection criteria were assessed with the items included in the review manager, according to the following characteristics: generation of the randomization sequence, concealment of the allocation sequence, blinding of participants and personnel, blinding of the outcome assessment, incomplete outcome data, and selective reporting of results. Each of these items was categorized as high, low, or unclear. Based on the joint assessment of the six items, the risk of bias of the study was categorized as follows: (1) low risk when all items were at low risk of bias; (2) unclear risk when one or more items have unclear risk; and (3) high risk when one or more items were at high risk of bias.

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