The statistics software used throughout was GraphPad Prism, version 9 for Windows (GraphPad Software). Single-center institutional data were pooled and summarized. Exploratory analyses were performed using descriptive statistics. Non-parametric tests were applied due to distributions deviating from normal. Data are presented as medians with range, as appropriate for the number of samples indicated. The Mann-Whitney U test and the Fisher’s exact test in contingency table analyses were used to test the correlation between Δs5HIAA and tumor size regression/stable disease, and progression, respectively. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were provided in relevant analyses. The concordance of urine and serum 5HIAA measurements was presented. Inter-rater reliability and sensitivity/specificity for serum compared to urine collection for clinically established cut-offs were evaluated with Cohen’s Kappa coefficients. Bonferroni correction for multiple testing were conducted as appropriate.

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