2.4. Energy Expenditure and Energy Balance
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Nutritional Practice and Nitrogen Balance in Elite Japanese Swimmers during a Training Camp
Sports (Basel), Jan 21, 2021; DOI: 10.3390/sports9020017

The total daily energy expenditure was estimated by adding the resting energy expenditure (REE), energy expenditure during normal daily physical activities, diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and exercise-induced energy expenditure (EEE) values. The REE values were calculated using Nelson’s equation, as follows: REE (kcal/day) = 25.80 × fat-free mass (kg) + 4.04 × fat mass (kg) [30]. Energy expenditure induced by normal daily physical activities were calculated from the data of an accerelometer they wore. The DIT was estimated from the total energy intake multiplied by the ratio of DIT to total energy reported in a previous study [31], as the protein–fat–carbohydrate balance of the consumed meals in this study was similar to that found in the previous study. A heart rate monitor (M430, Polar Electro, Kempele, Finland) was worn during swimming and dry-land exercise sessions to measure the quantity and intensity of each exercise. The EEE during swimming and dry-land exercises was assessed using the average heart rate (HR), exercise duration (time), gender, body weight, and age using Keytel’s equation [32]. In particular, the EEE during resistance exercises was calculated from the reps and duration of exercises according to Phillips’ study [33]. The energy balance between the energy intake and total energy expenditure was calculated each day.

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