Aphid fitness data collected on the eighth day of the experiment were processed using the R software. A multiple linear regression model was fitted to compare treatments with plant type, aphid virosed status, fungal application mode, and interactions between factors. The factor experiment was not significant and was therefore removed from the model. Then, data from two replicates of fitness assays were pooled in the same analysis. Requirements for the validity of the test (normality and homoscedasticity of the residual) were checked before applying the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test to the regression model. For each significant difference, a pairwise comparison was applied using the “lsmeans” function of the lsmeans package [72] with the Tukey fitting method. The “cld” function of the multcomp package [73] was used to set up a compact display of the letters of all pairwise comparisons. In addition, the probability of adult survival was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method [74], and curves were plotted with “survival” and “survminer” packages [75]. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards [76] were also calculated to analyze the effects of factor combinations on adult survival using same packages.

Correlations between the colonization rate of leaf tissue by EEPF and insect fitness data including mortality, fecundity, and nymph mortality rates were evaluated by the Spearman method using the “cor.test” function of the package stats [77,78].

The proportions of PLRV-infected plants to uninfected plants for each incubation period were assessed by Pearson’s chi-squared test. The pairwise tests of independence for nominal data were applied with the “pairwiseNominalIndependence” and the “cldList” functions of the rcompanion package [79] to determine the symmetry between treatments.

The significance threshold for all tests was set at 0.05%.

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