Prior to the behavioral testing, rats were handled and trained to acclimate the ladder for 7 consecutive days in the ladder rung apparatus, which was made according to the original report [13]. The apparatus was composed of self-made horizontal ladder rungs between the transparent sidewalls. 51 ladder rungs in 2 cm intervals (a total length of 1 m) were presented to the rat toward the home cage. During the walking of the rats, we performed video recording for each walking trial of the animal to capture the foot errors, including slight slip, deep slip, and total miss of the step. Skilled limb sensorimotor function was measured as the number of errors divided by the number of total steps for the affected limb, averaged for five consecutive trials. The foot fault rate between groups was compared using Student's t-test, with a p value < 0.05 considered statistically significant.

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