The experiments were performed in a quiet room equipped with sound booth. While inside the sound booth, participants sat in front of a laptop (Thinkpad W530, Lenovo Group Limited) while wearing Beyerdynamic DT 770 Pro 250 Ohm headphones and a head-mounted AKG Pro Audio C520 condenser microphone. Participant's speech from the microphone was fed into a Focusrite Scarlett 2i2 USB Recording Audio Interface and processed and recorded using matlab (which also displayed the word prompts) paired with the Feedback Utility for Speech Production (FUSP) software. FUSP repeatedly analyzed 3 ms frames of speech input from the microphone into separate pitch and formant representations that were, at times, altered (depending on the experiment) and used to synthesize the next 3 ms of speech output to the participant's headphones. The speech data were recorded at a rate of 11 025 Hz and this feedback processing, along with hardware delays, introduced an imperceptible ∼21 ms delay in the auditory feedback, as measured following the methods outlined by Kim et al. (2020).

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