To examine the spectrum of known actionable pharmacogenetic variants, those with clinical annotations of PharmGKB level 1A or 1B were selected since they represent variants with the highest level of evidence for clinical actionability of gene-drug associations [5,6,21]. In addition, the literature was reviewed to identify Chinese-specific pharmacogenetic variants that were actionable based on the CPIC guideline [22,23]. This review resulted in a list of 133 actionable pharmacogenetic variants and HLA alleles in 19 genes (S2 Table). To analyze rare pharmacogenetic variants that are potentially actionable, genes with at least one PharmGKB level 1 or 2 clinical annotation were selected, resulting in a list of 108 genes that were considered “high confidence pharmacogenes” (S3 Table) [5,6].

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