All data were analyzed using SPSS 20 (IBM Corp.) and GraphPad Prism 5.0 (GraphPad Software, Inc.). Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation. Comparisons between the two groups were performed using unpaired Student's t-test, and comparisons between ≥3 groups were performed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc analysis with Tukey's test. Each experiment was repeated three times. P<0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference.

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