Criteria for inclusion were publications on African paragonimiasis only, those addressing Asian or American paragonimiasis/Paragonimus species were excluded. All original research, including non-survey based works, for example case reports, experimental studies or questionnaire-only based studies were included. Any publications that did not contain new data, i.e., analysing the findings of an earlier study, were excluded. All papers meeting selection criteria were read in full by MER and JW, apart those in German, read solely by JW. Other papers not in English were translated in Google Translate. The sole paper in Japanese, which also had relevant sections in English, was checked by a native speaker. Reviews were excluded, but those on paragonimiasis in Africa were read in full and references checked against the main publication list and any new references added [4649,51,52].

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