Search terms included: paragonimiasis, Paragonimus, Paragonimus africanus/uterobilateralis/gondwanensis/kerberti, Africa, for all databases. Additional searches including these terms and the following were made in combination searches: all country names for West and Central Africa (Nigeria, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Liberia, Guinea, Senegal, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo/DRC, Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Benin, Togo, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Gambia and Burkina Faso); names of endemic regions, (Cross River, Imo River); prior country names to ensure historical records were found (Haute-Volta, Zaire); relevant French terms (paragonimoses and distomatoses), and intermediate host crab genera names: Sudanonautes, Liberonautes, Potamonautes and Potamonemus.

Following initial investigations, an additional review was undertaken for Poikilorchis congolensis (also known as Achillurbainia congolensis), given the confusion in identification with Paragonimus evident in the literature. Cases reporting a retroauricular or neck cyst and egg-negative sputum were assessed to be consistent with infection of P. congolensis only, not Paragonimus, as evident in the literature [4143]. Search terms were as above, minus the crab genera names and replacing Paragonimus spp. with Poikilorchis/congolensis.

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