Study participants in the discovery dataset were recruited in Washington, D.C. and Chicago, IL. Participants in the replication set were recruited in Washington, D.C., Cincinnati, OH, and Chicago, IL. The participants from Washington, D.C. were recruited at Howard University for one of two studies on human pigmentation [29] or serum vitamin D levels and prostate cancer in AAs [30]. The participants from Chicago were recruited for a vitamin D and prostate cancer study at five hospitals as well as from community health events [31,32]. The participants from Cincinnati were recruited as a part of a study to investigate the relationship between self-reported race, genetic ancestry, socio-economic status, and skin color [33]. All of the study participants were self-identified AAs. After receiving consent, study coordinators administered a questionnaire and obtained demographic information. Blood samples for DNA analysis and serum 25(OH)D assays were collected at the time of recruitment.

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