Total RNAs were extracted by the TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen). Genomic DNA was thoroughly digested by RNase free DNase (Promega). First-strand cDNA was synthesized by using a GoScript reverse transcription system (Promega) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. qPCR was performed with Fast SYBR green PCR master mix (Bio-Rad) on the CFX96 real-time system (Bio-Rad). PCR conditions were as follows: 95°C for 5 min and then 40 cycles of 95°C for 20 s, 60°C for 20 s, and 72°C for 20 s. All primers used for qPCRs are shown in S1 Table, and β-actin gene was used as an internal control. The relative fold changes were calculated by comparison to the corresponding controls using the 2-ΔΔCt method. Three independent experiments were conducted for statistical analysis.

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