Automated marker placement and triangle approach

We proposed a mathematical model for placing eight virtual markers on a defined location in the subject’s face [49]. Descriptions of the computer-generated marker placement algorithm for emotional facial expressions can be found in [49]. After the marker placement, each marker’s edges are used to formulate five triangles for facial emotional expression detection. We have investigated a maximum of 42 different triangles by heuristic approach, and finally, five triangles are selected based on higher emotional expression rate. Fig 3 shows the face detection, automated marker placement and proposed triangle method. Table 2 describes the correspondent triangle formulated through facial features (markers) and Fig 4 shows the geometrical model of marker placement. Here, p_e1 refers to the first marker in the left eye, p_e2 refers to the second marker in the right eye, p_e3 refers to the second marker in the left eye, p_e4 refers to the first marker in the right eye, C center marker, p_m1 refers to the marker in the left side of the mouth, p_m2 refers to the marker in the right side of the mouth, p_m3 refers to the marker in the top of the mouth, and p_m4 refers to the marker at the bottom of the mouth.

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