The primary outcome of this study was the time to onset of motor blockade, which was defined as the time to complete loss of shoulder abduction. Secondary efficacy outcomes included time to onset of sensory blockade, block performance time, number of needle passes, block duration, block failure, perioperative opioid consumption, pain scores, recovery room length of stay, incidence of PONV and patient satisfaction. These outcomes are further defined in Table 1.

Total opioid consumption was calculated as total oral morphine equivalents, using a previously published equation [9,10] which is included in S2 File.

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