In order to compare the groups of infection-associated (INF, n = 23) and commensal isolates (nCloNo, n = 62), a virtual INF isolate for each infection was calculated by averaging the values of phenotype variables of all INF isolates from one infection (2–10 INF isolate per patient -> compiled into one virtual isolate by averaging values of variables -> one virtual isolate per infection goes into comparison with nCloNo isolates, as not to introduce a bias into the comparison by adding more than one isolate per infection). Phenotypes were tested for a symmetric distribution and transformed to a logarithmic scale in order to attain normal distribution where appropriate. Metric variables were analysed by Student’s t-Test. Categorical variables were tested by Pearson’s chi-square. Statistical significance was accepted at a p-value ≤0.05. Analyses were conducted in SPSS version 25 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). Plots were created in R with the ggplot2 package[101] and GraphPad Prism v5 (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA, USA).

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