Clinical information from the maternity database was imported into a study database created using JMP-14 (SAS, Cary, North Carolina). Details from the clinical record, including variables missing from the maternity database, were transcribed into the database. A review of 10% of the records by an independent researcher identified fewer than 1% of checked records with discrepancies in ANC, maternal or neonatal BGC data. Outlying data points were not removed. Mothers and babies with no glycaemic data were excluded from analysis. We did not impute any values for missing data.

The time course of maternal BGC was described by calculating the proportion of women exceeding each threshold and the mean BGC in each consecutive three-hour epoch after ANC administration. For women who had received insulin prior to ANC administration, the increase in insulin dose after ANC was calculated as the percentage increase in the 24 hour period after ANC administration compared to that in the 24 hour period immediately prior to ANC administration. For women who had not received insulin prior to ANC administration, the administration of insulin over the subsequent 24 hours was recorded as “yes” or “no”.

Data are presented as number and %, number and interquartile range (IQR) or range, and mean and standard deviation (SD). Maternal, neonatal and ANC variables were compared using nominal logistic regression and results presented as proportions with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The results from the univariate analyses were used to construct multivariate models using multinomial logistic forwards and backwards stepwise regression. Results from the multinomial logistic regression are presented unless otherwise specified. A two-sided p value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Associations between maternal and neonatal glycaemia were analysed for each mother and baby pair, with multiple pregnancies treated as separate pairs. Using a nested analysis or using only one of the mother baby pairs did not change any of the results.

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