The three main study outcomes were different forms of IPV perpetrated by MLHIV (psychological and physical IPV (PPV), severe physical IPV (SPV), and sexual IPV (SV)). All three were created using the methods described in the subsection “Statistical analysis” (see below) and each was defined as a three-class categorical variable reflecting the level of violence perpetrated (e.g., no PPV; moderate level of PPV; high level of PPV).

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