Maternal medical records were reviewed for all women giving birth at < 370 weeks’ gestation; admitted to hospital for > 2 hours for any reason during pregnancy between 220−366 weeks’ gestation; birthing by elective caesarean section at any gestation; or birthing by emergency caesarean section at < 39 weeks’ gestation. All babies born to included mothers were identified from the hospital database. Details of ANC administration (drug, dose, date and time of each dose) were retrieved from prescription records. The indication for ANC administration was not available. An initial course of ANC was defined as the first course of ANC administered in the pregnancy. A repeat course of ANC was defined as a second or later course of ANC administered 7 days or more after the initial course. Maternal demographic, obstetric and neonatal data were extracted from the hospital database and entered into a secure anonymised research database. Further details of the cohort have been described previously [21].

All available maternal and neonatal BGCs, measured both by laboratory and point-of-care devices, including in-patient, outpatient and self-recorded measurements, were obtained from the clinical records. For mothers, all BGCs from 48 hours prior to the first dose of ANC until 7 days after the last dose for each course, or until the time of birth if this occurred before 7 days. BGCs were also collected for the 24 hours prior to birth. BGCs measured before breakfast were assumed to be fasting. For babies, all BGCs from birth until 7 days after birth. Insulin data were collected from hospital records and also patient-held records where available.

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