Crystals were soaked in a solution containing 25% glycerol and 75% reservoir solution for a few seconds and then mounted in loops and frozen in liquid nitrogen prior to data collection. Diffraction data were collected at 100 K at beamline I03 of Diamond Light Source, UK. Diffraction images of 0.1° rotation were recorded on an Eiger2 XE 16M detector with exposure time ranging from 0.004 to 0.01 s per frame, beam size 80 × 20 μm and 100% beam transmission. Data were indexed, integrated and scaled with the automated data processing program Xia2-dials or Xia2-3dii (Winter, 2010; Winter et al., 2018). For RBD-158 crystal form 2, RBD-316 and the ternary complexes of RBD88-45, RBD-253H55L and RBD-384-S309 datasets of 360° were collected from a single frozen crystal each, and 720° of data from 2 crystals for RBD-150, RBD-scFv269, RBD-158 crystal form 1 and RBD-253-75.

The structures were determined by molecular replacement with PHASER (Liebschner et al., 2019) using search models of the RBD, VhVl and ChCl domains of a closely related Fab in sequence for each complex. Sequence corrections to the target Fabs from the search models and model rebuilding were done with COOT (Emsley and Cowtan, 2004). All the structures were refined with PHENIX (Liebschner et al., 2019) resulting in good R-factors and stereochemistry for most of the structures except for RBD-88-45 and RBD-53-75 in each of which there is presence of translational NCS with vectors (−0.003 0.502 0.489) and (0.044, 0, 0.5) and can only be refined to Rwork/Rfree of 0.250/0.285 and 0.242/0.284 to 2.53 Å and 2.50 Å, respectively. The ChCl domains of Fab 88 in the RBD-88-45 complex are disordered. Data collection and structure refinement statistics are given in Table S5.

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