All statistical analysis was performed with R (version 3.6.2). The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve and the area under the curve (AUC) analysis were conducted with R “pROC” package. The calibration curve was depicted with R “rms” package. Accuracy (ACC), sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), Cohen’s kappa coefficient (Kappa), F1 score, and Brier score were calculated with R “caret,” “epiR,” and “rms” packages. Kaplan-Meier plot with log-rank test was conducted with R “survival” and “survminer” packages. Model importance was calculated using R package “caret.” The correlation between selected features and critical illness status were calculated Spearman correlation. Significance of the difference between the median values of critical illness and non-critical illness were conducted by the Asymptotic Two-Sample Brown-Mood Median Test using R “coin” package. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression were conducted with R “survival” package. Ninety-five percent confidence interval (CI) are reported if necessary.

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