We conducted a retrospective study that included 2451 consecutive COVID-19 patients with outcomes (discharge or death) between January 27, 2020, and March 30, 2020, from Sino-French New City Campus of Tongji Hospital and Optical Valley Campus of Tongji Hospital in China, who were diagnosed according to the 7th edition of the Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol of COVID-19 by the National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China [15]. Exclusion criteria were (1) patients under 18 years old, or with pregnancy; (2) patients transferred from Fangcang hospitals for social-distancing; (3) patients died within 24 h of admission, and patients re-hospitalized or discharged for special reasons such as dialysis. Details of excluded patients were as follows: 80 cases without matched diagnosis, 216 cases from Fangcang shelter hospitals, 37 cases died within 24 h, and 42 cases under 18 years old, et al.

As 375 patients were excluded, 2076 patients were finally included in this study and divided into three groups. Specifically, 50% and 50% of patients from Sino-French New City Campus of Tongji Hospital were randomly divided into the training cohort and the internal validation cohort. Patients from the Optical Valley Campus of Tongji Hospital were used as an external validation cohort. Critical illness was defined as admission to intensive care unit, undergoing invasive ventilation, or death [16]. A total of 36 raw immune/inflammatory parameters (natural killer [NK] cells count, NK cell percent, T-helper + T-suppressor lymphocyte [Th + Ts] percent, Th/Ts, Th + Ts count, [T + B + NK] count, [T + B + NK] percent, Th count, Th percent, Ts count, Ts percent, total B count, total B percent, total T lymphocyte-T-helper lymphocyte-T-suppressor lymphocyte [total T-THS], total T count, total T percent, complement 3 [C3], complement 4 [C4], ferritin, lymphocyte [LYM] count, lymphocyte [LYM] percent, C reactive protein, procalcitonin, interferon-γ [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β [IL-1β], interleukin-2 receptor [IL-2R], interleukin-4 [IL-4], interleukin-6 [IL-6], interleukin-8 [IL-8], interleukin-10 [IL-10], immunoglobulin A [IgA], immunoglobulin G [IgG], immunoglobulin M [IgM], SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody IgM [C-IgM], and SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody IgG [C-IgG]) were collected from electronic medical records at admission. These features were collected using the same pre-designed data collection table across cohorts. Trained researchers entered and double-checked the data independently.

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