The patients underwent thoracoscopic esophagectomy with two- or three-field lymphadenectomy according to the treatment guidelines in Japan [10]. Lymphadenectomy along the recurrent laryngeal nerves was securely performed with an intraoperative nerve integrated monitoring system to prevent nerve injury. After the thoracic procedure, gastric mobilization was performed laparoscopically. The gastric conduit was constructed extracorporeally and pulled up via the posterior-mediastinal or retro-sternal route. An end-to-end anastomosis was created in the cervix (McKeown esophagectomy). Feeding button-type jejunostomy was routinely performed for adequate postoperative enteral nutrition (EN).

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