The methodology related to the six variables analyzed in this study was as follows: height (cm) was measured using a gauge, to the nearest 0.01 cm. Weight (kg) was measured using a scale, to the nearest 0.01 kg. BMI (kg/m2) was calculated by dividing weight (kg) by height squared (m2), to the nearest 0.01 kg/m2. Normal walking speed (m/s) was measured by a method recommended in Japan. Basically, two or three trials were performed, and the faster speed was recorded, to the nearest 0.01 m/s. However, there were some differences in the walking distances: 2.4, 5 and 6 m in one study each, and 10 m in two studies in 2007; and 2.4 m in one study, 5 m in seven studies, and 10 m in one study in 2017. Hand grip strength was measured using a Smedley dynamometer. Two trials were performed, and the larger reading was recorded, to the nearest 0.01 kg. IADL was assessed using one of the subscales of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC; 13 items).17,18 The subscale related to IADL is “Instrumental Self-maintenance,” which contains five items: Can you go out by yourself using bus or train? Are you able to shop for daily necessities? Are you able to prepare meals by yourself? Are you able to pay bills? Can you handle your own banking? A score of 1 is given to a response of “yes” and 0 to “no” and sum of the scores was calculated. The total score for an individual ranges from 0 to 5.

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