The data were tested for normality using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test and found to be non-normally distributed. Data are therefore presented as median values with ranges or interquartile ranges (range or IQRs). The Kruskall–Wallis test was used to assess if there were significant differences in the dead space and alveolar ventilation between the three groups, and if significant differences were identified Mann Whitney U tests were performed to determine between which groups the differences occurred. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software version 25.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL).

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