An NM3 respiratory profile monitor (Philips Respironics, CT), connected to a combined pressure and flow sensor with mainstream capnograph (Capnostat-5), was used [Fig. 1]. The flow and pressure measurements were from a fixed orifice pneumotachometer and differential pressure sensor, respectively. The expired CO2 was measured using infrared absorption spectroscopy. The respiratory monitor was automatically calibrated for pressure, flow and CO2 according to the factory-stored calibrations within the monitor. The NM3 monitor was connected to a Laptop (Dell Latitude, UK) with customised Spectra software (3.0.1.4; Grove Medical, UK). The data were exported from Spectra to Microsoft Excel (for Office 365, 2007 version) with a sampling output of 100 Hz for analysis and construction of volumetric capnograms.

a combined pneumotachograph and mainstream capnograph b Endotracheal tube c Ventilator tubing.

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