RNA was isolated from cells using RNeasy Mini kit (Qiagen) following the manufacturer’s instructions. RNA concentration was qualitatively assessed and quantified using NanoDrop 2000 (Thermo scientific). Total RNA (2 μg) was reverse transcribed to cDNA with a ReverTra Ace qPCR RT Master Mix (TOYOBO). RT-PCR was performed with SYBR Green RT-PCR Master Mix (TaKaRa) on a StepOnePlus Real-Time PCR System (Thermo Scientific). PCR cycles consisted of initial denaturation at 95 °C for 30 s, followed by 40 cycles of 95 °C for 30 s, 95 °C for 5 s, and 60 °C for 30 s. The relative expression of mRNA was calculated using the 2−ΔΔCt method. Data were normalized to the expression of β-actin or RPL27. The sequences of primers used are listed in Table S1.

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