Student’s t-test was used to compare gene expression differences between tumor and normal tissues. Univariate and multivariate cox regression analyses were used to evaluate the correlations between the factors and patients’ OS. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival differences between high and low-risk groups. Kaplan–Meier curve was implemented to visualize the survival. Mann–Whitney test with P values adjusted by the BH method was used to compare the ssGSEA scores of immune cells or pathways between the high-risk and low-risk groups. All the statistics were done using the R software (version 4.0.2). P value < 0.05 was set as statistically significant for all the analyses.

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