Cells were seeded in dish to form a confluent monolayer. Then 200 μl pipette tip was used to make a scratch in the middle of plate, and wash twice with PBS. The monolayer was maintained with the FBS-free media with LAE supplement. Wound closure was monitored after 0 and 36 h. The percent of wound closed are calculated by image J. TGF-β1 was purchased from Peprotech (USA, # 100-21-10) and dissolved in 10 mM citric acid, pH3.0 at 0.1–1.0 mg/ml. Chloroquine diphosphate (CQ) was purchased from Medchem Express (Shanghai, China, cat# HY-17589) and dissolved in H2O to 10 mg/ml. LiCl was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA, # 213233) and dissolved in cell culture medium to 20 mM. Nuciferine was purchased from Medchem Express (Shanghai, China, cat# HY-N0049) and dissolved in DMSO to 1.6925 mM.

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