The primary outcome of this study will be the QoR-15 score at 24 h postoperatively. The established minimum clinically important difference in QoR-15 is 8.0 and the mean SD of QoR-15 scores after major spinal surgery is in the order of 14 [range of QoR score is 1–150]. Therefore, assuming type I error = 0.05 and type II error = 0.2 (80% power to detect this difference), then n = 25 patients will be required in each group. To accommodate for participants who may withdraw from the study, we will aim to recruit n = 26 patients to each study arm.

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