For activity of the brush border enzymes, lactase, maltase, sucrase, aminopeptidase N (ApN), aminopeptidase A (ApA), dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPPIV) tissue samples from the mid small intestine were homogenized in 1% Triton X-100 buffer using a gentleMACS Dissociator (Miltenyi Biotec, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany). Assays were performed using specific substrates, as described previously (33). Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in mid small intestine and colon homogenates were analyzed using DuoSet ELISA kits (R&D systems, Minneapolis, MN) following the manufacturer's instruction. Each sample was tested in duplicate and measurements below detection limits were assigned a value of zero for the given analyte.

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