Male and female aged > 18

Able to provide written informed consent

ASA grade I–IV

Planned posterior approach spinal surgery involving 2 or more levels in the lumbar or thoracic regions

Absence of or inability to give informed consent

Pre-existing infection at block site

Severe coagulopathy

Allergy to local anaesthesia (or any other contraindication to block performance, e.g. concern re local anaesthesia toxicity)

Previous history of opiate abuse

Pre-existing chronic pain condition

Pre-existing dementia (due to the need to co-operate in completing QoR-15 score day after surgery)

Surgery involving cervical vertebrae

Surgery due to queried or confirmed malignancy

Surgery involving 5 or more vertebral levels

Postoperative admission to ICU for continued ventilation

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