We enrolled 24 patients with GBS and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, according to WHO COVID-19 case definitions [27], [28] admitted to tertiary hospitals of four cities of the Lombardy region (Bergamo, Brescia, Pavia, Milano) in North Italy during the pandemic peak in March and April 2020. The patients were classified as having AIDP according to recently reported electrodiagnostic criteria [22] (denominated S-AIDP). Controls were 48 consecutive patients diagnosed as having AIDP, according to the same criteria, at the University Hospital of Chieti in the years preceding 2019 (denominated C-AIDP). The diagnosis of GBS was based in both groups on the Brighton Collaboration GBS Working Group criteria [20]. Level 1 of the Brighton criteria indicates the highest degree of diagnostic certainty supported by nerve-conduction studies and the presence of albumin-cytologic dissociation in CSF. A level 2 diagnosis is supported by either a CSF white-cell count of less than 50 cells/μl (with or without an elevated protein level) or nerve-conduction studies consistent with the Guillain–Barré syndrome (if the CSF white-cell count is unavailable). A level 3 diagnosis is based on clinical features without support from nerve-conduction or CSF studies.

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