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Within 3 months after the eye examination the participants completed a psychometric test battery. This comprised five standard questionnaires, all validated for the Hungarian population (Table 4). The first questionnaire addressed sociodemographic characteristics: male/female gender, age (year of birth), education level (0–3 grades on the Likert-scale), marital status (unmarried, married, divorced, widow/widower, single, living with a partner), the number of children and the number of grandchildren and great-grandchildren. To measure anxiety two questionnaires were used. Of them, the Hungarian version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) [15, 16], was completed first. BAI comprises 21 items and measures the cognitive and psychophysiological symptoms of anxiety. The Hungarian version of the Spielberg Trait Anxiety Test (STAI) [17, 18] was completed afterwards. STAI comprises 20 items principally addressing the emotional characteristics of anxiety. Then the Beck Depression Questionnaire (BDI) was completed to quantitatively assess the presence or absence of depressive symptoms [19, 20]. In the current investigation the full 21-item version of BDI was used. To evaluate the feeling of hopelessness the Hungarian version of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS, 20-item) [21, 22] was used. The last questionnaire was the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), which is designed to measure QL [23, 24]. The SF-36 questionnaire addresses 8 different factors, separately. The physical functioning subscale measures the physical limitations experienced by an individual in everyday activity. The physical role functioning subscale is used to measure the performance in routine tasks as a function of physical health (reduction of time devoted to routine tasks). The emotional role functioning factor measures difficulty in performing the individual’s everyday activity as a function of mental health, the decrease in the amount of effort and time devoted to these activities. The vitality subscale measures levels of fatigue and exhaustion, but it also measures vitality and enthusiasm. The mental health dimension measures irritability, resentment, sadness, calmness, and happiness. The social role functioning scale measures change in the intensity of relationships with relatives and friends as a function of physical health. The bodily pain factor measures experience of physical pain and its limiting effect on everyday life. Finally, the general health subscale quantifies general health status and attitude towards health.

Tested characteristics used in the current analysis

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[21]

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[23]

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[24]

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