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Forty-one subjects aged 22–30 years participated in the study. All subjects had normal colour vision, less than 0.75 D of astigmatism, 0.0 logMAR visual acuity or better and no other ocular or systemic disease. Before the experiment, all subjects had been tested for subjective refraction and had undergone slit-lamp examination, fundus examination, chromoptometry, amplitude of accommodation examination, accommodative facility examination and visual fatigue questionnaire to exclude accommodative dysfunctions or any other disorders that could affect the study results.

The subjects were divided into two groups: an emmetropes (EMM) group (n = 19) and a myopes (MYO) group (n = 22). The EMM group comprised those subjects with a spherical equivalent refractive error (SE) between − 0.5 and + 0.5 D, while the MYO group had subjects with an SE between − 1.0 D and − 6.0 D. SE difference between two eyes of each subject was less than 1.0 D in both groups. The right eyes of all subjects were used in the analysis, and so all data pertain only to the right eye (Table 1).

Details of the subject groups

Data were analyzed with t-test. The asterisk indicates a significant difference between EMM group and MYO group in SE (p < 0.05).

The study was approved by the ethics committee of the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, and was in accordance with the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. All subjects provided written consent. The study subjects were asked to stay away from alcohol and caffeine for more than 24 h before the study and to sleep for more than 7 h before the day of the study.

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