Measurement of regular LTPA

Regular LTPA is defined as engaging in moderate and/or vigorous physical activity during leisure time for at least several times a week, which includes three or more times per week for vigorous activity or at least five times a week for light-moderate activities [24]. SLP respondents were asked to indicate their monthly frequency of participation in social/leisure physical activities such as exercises, swimming, and brisk walking. These are moderate- or vigorous-intensity activities that typically last at least 20 min each time. The survey did not feature questions about individual activity types. Response categories for overall LTPA engagement were “daily”, “several times per week”, “once a week”, “1-3 times a month”, or “less than once a month”. Using the January 2019 responses, we constructed a regular LTPA binary variable by combining the “daily” and “several times per week” responses into a “yes” category, and the other three responses into a “no” category. This was the main outcome variable of interest.

Data on LTPA were separately collated in July and October 2018 surveys from the same respondents. Thus in total, the sampled respondents’ LTPA participation was observed at three points in time over a seven-month period (July 2018, inclusive – January 2019). To explore whether factors predicting current participation are identical to those driving sustained participation in LTPA, we constructed an additional outcome variable (for sustained LTPA) coded 1 if the respondents reported regular LTPA participation at all three assessment points, and 0 otherwise.

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