Participants were recruited upon admission to outpatient and residential facilities, via advertisements in newspapers and on thematic websites, from the student population, and postings in therapeutic and counseling institutions. Inclusion criteria were female gender, age ≥ 15 years, sufficient knowledge of the German language, and absence of neurological diseases (relevant for other parts of the project). The inclusion criteria for the AN group were a score of ≥2 on the SCOFF questionnaire [39], a screening instrument for identifying EDs, followed by a diagnosis of AN in the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID; German version [40]). This DSM-IV SCID version [40] was applied, as the German version of the DSM-5 SCID [41] was first released in 2019. In order to comply with DSM-5 criteria of AN, we omitted the amenorrhea criterion and allowed a diagnosis of AN in the absence of FP if persistent behaviours counteracting weight gain were present in the setting of low weight and lack of recognition of associated medical consequences. Exclusion criteria for the AN group were a current psychotic and/ or manic episode, substance misuse or related addiction, and a body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to 25 kg/m2. For HCs, exclusion criteria were any current or lifetime mental disorder and a BMI below 18.5 kg/m2. After the screening of N = 118 interested participants (HC: n = 62; AN: n = 56), n = 51 were excluded due to not meeting inclusion criteria (in HC: age or BMI too low, or presence of mental disorder; in AN: age too low or BMI too high). After diagnostic assessment, another participant needed to be excluded for not meeting diagnostic criteria for AN. A total of N = 66 participants took part in the study (HC: n = 29; AN: n = 37). Two participants with AN had to be excluded after participation in the study due to missing data, resulting in N = 64 participants (HC: n = 29; AN: n = 35). A power analysis indicated that we had the power to detect medium to large effect sizes (f = 0.38) in the main analyses between participants with AN and HCs.

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