For in vitro experiments, data represent at least three biological replicates performed with a minimum of duplicate technical replicates unless indicated otherwise. The two-tailed, unpaired Student's t-test was used to determine statistical significance for all experiments unless indicated otherwise. Statistical significance was denoted as follows: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, ****P < 0.0001. Data are shown as mean ± SEM unless indicated otherwise.

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