A piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler (SKL A7) fabricated two coolant containers was sponsored by SKL Medical Instrument Co. Ltd. (Guangdong, China), which could generate ultrasonic vibration at a frequency of 24–33 kHz. Two different subgingival scaler tips used in treatment represented a conventional design (P3, SKL, Guangdong, China) and a new-type terminal-outlet design (Patent No. ZL201820316091.3) which allows coolants to be delivered through the tip and ejected from the apex outlet in addition to ultrasonic vibration (Fig. 1). The flow rate of coolants (either water or EGCG solution) was turned up to maximum during ultrasonic scaling.

The ultrasonic scaler tips used in this study. a The conventional P3 (up) and new-type scaler tip (down), b terminal outlet of the new-type scaler tip allows coolants to be ejected into deep pockets

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