All statistical analyses were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS version 24 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The Shapiro–Wilk test was employed to assess normality of the variables. HOMA2 was log transformed to approximate a normal distribution. For descriptive statistics, categorical variables were presented as number of cases or percentage. 25th and 75th percentile values of HOMA2 were calculated and groups falling in the lower (Q1) and upper (Q4) quartiles were compared, where Q1 includes HOMA2 < 25th percentile and Q4 includes HOMA2 > 75th percentile. For the comparison of two groups, two-tailed independent Student’s t test was employed for the continuous normally distributed variables. Otherwise, the Mann-Whitney U test was used. Pearson correlation coefficients was used to test the linear association between HOMA2, cognitive measures, rCMRGlc, hippocampal, total grey matter and WML volume. Significant associations between HOMA2 and imaging measures were tested for quantitative relationship by multiple regression analysis. Significance was set at a p value < 0.05.

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