The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. We assessed the reliability of all instruments. An alpha value higher than 0.9 indicates excellent internal consistency; a value of at least 0.7 indicates acceptable internal consistency [23]. The descriptive summary statistics (mean, proportion) were conducted. Descriptive analysis for CD-RISC was conducted by adding together all scores, with a higher score indicating a higher level of resilience (scores range from 0 to 100). The Brief COPE analysis was conducted by summing the subscales and regrouping them into categories of adaptive coping mechanisms: problem-focused (score of 6–24), emotion-focused (score of 10–40), and maladaptive coping mechanisms (score of 12–48) [24, 25]. We analyzed the Big Five Personality test by adding the scores separately for each personality dimension: extraversion (score 8–40), agreeableness (score 9–45), conscientiousness (score 9–45), neuroticism (score 8–40), and openness (score 10–50) [19, 22]. We performed an ANNOVA test to determine differences in the resilience, coping mechanisms, and personality scores of students in each year. Following the descriptive analysis, we conducted post-hoc analysis using the Tukey technique or the Honest Significant Difference (HSD) test to further analyze differences between student groups.

Using Pearson’s analysis, we performed correlation analyses between resilience and each variable (coping mechanisms, the Big Five Personality test, and academic performance). We then analyzed the extent to which independent variables (coping mechanisms, personality, and academic achievement) may explain the variation in resilience scores.

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